Common Problems of 2019-nCoV

1. What is a new coronavirus?

The prevalent coronavirus is a newly discovered coronavirus, named by the WHO as 2019-nCoV. The population is generally susceptible because the population lacks immunity to the new virus strains.

2019-nCoV virus under the microscope
2019-nCoV virus under the microscope

2. What is the difference between the new coronavirus and SARS virus?

The new coronavirus, SARS virus, and MERS virus belong to the large family of coronaviruses. They are “brothers and sisters.” The genetic sequences have many similarities, but they are not exactly the same. The infectivity compared with SARS has yet to be determined. The mortality rate is currently lower than SARS, but the possibility of virus mutation is not ruled out.

3. Which wild animals carry coronavirus?

Many wild animals can carry pathogens and become a source of transmission. Civets, bats, bamboo rats, and tadpoles are common hosts of coronaviruses.

It is speculated that the natural host of the new coronavirus in Wuhan this time may be bats, but how it is transmitted from bats to humans and what the intermediary is is still unclear.

For the sake of safety, you should never eat foods such as wild animals and raw food that are not quarantined, such as raw meat on the roadside.

4. Can the latency be detected?

The incubation period can be detected by nucleic acid in patient samples, which can detect new coronavirus infections early.

5. Can the new coronavirus be passed from person to person?

meeting. Based on current evidence, it can be determined that the new coronavirus can be transmitted from person to person. According to the analysis by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the transmission of droplets of the new coronavirus can almost determine the existence of contact transmission, but it is not certain whether there is air transmission.

The new coronavirus has a certain degree of transmission. If no protective measures are taken, theoretically one patient can transmit the virus to two to three people.

6. What is droplet transmission? What is aerosol transmission?

Droplets can enter susceptible mucosal surfaces through a certain distance (typically 1 to 2 meters). Because the droplets are large (greater than 5um), they will not be suspended in the air for a long time.

Daily face-to-face talking, coughing and sneezing can cause droplets to spread. If you have a patient with a suspected new type of coronavirus, remember to wear a mask and try to keep a distance of more than 2 meters. Masks should be properly discarded after use, and hands should be thoroughly washed with soap and running water after contact with patients.

Aerosol transmission: particles that can be transmitted through the air, generally less than 5um in diameter, can still be infectious after being spread long distances. Airborne pathogens can also be transmitted through contact. Previously SARS coronaviruses were speculated to be transmitted through the air.

7. What is contact transmission?

Contact transmission, including direct contact transmission and indirect contact transmission.

Direct contact transmission

Direct contact transmission refers to an infection caused directly by a pathogen without passing through other items in the middle. We most often say direct contact transmission includes kissing and sexual intercourse. Kissing and sexual intercourse can only occur in close contact, so it is not recommended if you have symptoms of infection.

Indirect contact transmission

Indirect contact transmission refers to transmission caused by indirect contact with contaminated items. For example, hands and daily necessities (bedding, toys, utensils, clothing, etc.) are contaminated by excreta from the source of infection (such as feces may be transmitted, which cannot be fully determined at present) or secretions (such as those associated with coughing or sneezing) It is touched by the hand, and then touches the mucous membranes such as the nose, mouth and eyes to enter the body. Therefore, the main prevention is hand washing.

8. What is suspicious exposure? What are close contacts?

Suspected persons are those who have been exposed to new coronavirus-positive wild animals, objects, and the environment, and have not taken effective protection (such as wearing a mask) when exposed.

Close contacts are those who have been in contact with a suspected or diagnosed infection in one of the following situations:

  1. Persons who live, study, work or have close contact with the case;
  2. Medical personnel, family members or other persons who have similar close contact with the case when they do not take effective protective measures during diagnosis, treatment, and visiting the case;
  3. The case is the same as other patients and accompanying staff in the ward;
  4. Travel on the same vehicle as the case and have close contact with people;
  5. On-site investigators who are assessed as eligible after investigation.

For close contacts, medical observation is required at home. Do not go to work, do not go out casually, do a good job of self-physical observation, regular follow-up by community doctors.

Observe these signs and symptoms:

  1. fever. Measure your temperature twice a day.
  2. cough.
  3. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
  4. Other early symptoms that require attention include chills, physical pain, sore throat, headache, diarrhea, nausea / vomiting, and runny nose.

If abnormal symptoms such as fever and cough occur, report to the local community follow-up doctor in time, and go to the designated medical department for investigation, diagnosis and treatment under the guidance of the doctor.

9. Why medically observe close contacts for 14 days?

The incubation period of new coronavirus pneumonia is about 7 days on average, the shortest is 2 to 3 days, and the longest 10 to 12 days.

Referring to the incubation period of other diseases caused by coronavirus, the new coronavirus case will set the medical observation period of close contacts to 14 days, and conduct close medical observations of close contacts. After 14 days, the person can be judged uninfected if he does not develop the disease.

10. Will people who get cured continue to get sick (infected)?

Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that are susceptible to mutation, so it is difficult to form sustained immunity. For example, the flu virus that circulates every year requires the latest vaccination, also because the virus type often changes.

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