2019-nCoV:All the authoritative information you need to know

  • Pneumonia Caused by New Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infection
  • At first, fever, fatigue, dry cough and dyspnea gradually appeared
  • Have the ability to infect people, wear masks correctly to strengthen protection.
  • Most of them have a good prognosis, a few are in critical condition and even can cause death.
2019-nCoV:All the authoritative information you need to know

Definition of disease

Pneumonia infected by new coronavirus is acute infectious pneumonia, and its pathogen is a new coronavirus not previously found in human beings, namely 2019 new coronavirus (2019 novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCoV). On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed to name pneumonia infected by the new coronavirus “2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease”.

On January 30, 2020, WHO announced the new coronavirus infection pneumonia epidemic as a public health emergency (PHEIC) of international concern.

The initial symptoms of the patients are mostly fever, fatigue, and dry cough, and severe symptoms such as dyspnea gradually appear. The prognosis of most patients is good, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock or even death may occur in some severe cases. At present, there is a lack of effective antiviral drugs against pathogens, mainly isolated treatment, and symptomatic support treatment.

Basic etiology

Coronavirus belongs to single strand positive strand RNA virus. There are 6 kinds of coronaviruses known to infect human beings in the past, namely HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, SARSr-CoV, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1 and MERSr-CoV.

The coronavirus isolated from the lower respiratory tract of patients with unexplained pneumonia in Wuhan this time is a new coronavirus belonging to β genus, namely 2019 new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), belonging to the 7th species. Current research shows that the homology with bat SARS-like coronavirus (bat-SL-CoVZC45) is more than 85%.

Symptoms

Some patients had mild onset symptoms and no fever. Severe and critical patients may have moderate to low fever or even no obvious fever during the course of the disease.

classical symptom

  • Fever, fatigue and dry cough are the main manifestations.
  • Upper respiratory symptoms such as nasal obstruction and runny nose are rare.
  • About half of the patients had dyspnea one week later, and the severe cases rapidly developed into acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, metabolic acidosis difficult to correct and coagulation dysfunction.

It is worth noting that severe and critical patients may have moderate to low fever or even no obvious fever during the course of the disease. Some patients had mild onset symptoms and no fever. Most of them recovered after 1 week. The prognosis of most patients is good, and a few patients are critically ill or even dead.

2019-nCoV virus under the microscope
2019-nCoV virus under the microscope

Medical treatment

The disease is an acute infection, and the disease usually gets worse gradually in the first week. Please see a doctor in time in case of any of the following conditions:

  • Recent unexplained fever, fatigue, cough, etc.
  • There was a history of living or traveling in Wuhan within two weeks before the onset of the disease.
  • There was a history of close contact with confirmed patients two weeks before the onset of the disease.
  • Aggregated incidence (2 or more).

When seeing a doctor, the doctor may ask the following questions to initially understand the medical history, and the patient may prepare the corresponding answer in advance:

  • When do symptoms such as fever and cough occur?
  • Where did you go before the onset of the disease and who did you contact?
  • Is there anyone with similar symptoms?
  • Is there breathing difficulty?
  • What are the underlying diseases?

Diagnostic criteria

According to the “Diagnosis and Treatment Plan for Pneumonia Infected by New Coronavirus (Trial Fourth Edition)” issued by the National Health and Safety Commission:

suspected cases  hospitals

According to the comprehensive analysis of the following epidemiological history and clinical manifestations, there is any one of the epidemiological history, which is consistent with any two of the clinical manifestations.

Epidemiological history

  • There was a history of travel or residence in Wuhan within two weeks before the onset of the disease.
  • Or had contact with fever patients with respiratory symptoms from Wuhan within 14 days before the onset of the disease;
  • There is an epidemiological correlation between clustering or new coronavirus infection.

Clinical picture

  • Fever;
  • Having the above-mentioned imaging features of pneumonia;
  • In the early stage of the disease, the total number of white blood cells was normal or decreased, or the lymphocyte count was decreased.

Confirmed case

Suspected cases have one of the following etiological evidences:

  • Real-time fluorescence RT-PCR detection of novel coronavirus nucleic acid in respiratory tract specimens or blood specimens is positive.
  • Viral gene sequencing of respiratory tract specimens or blood specimens is highly homologous with known novel coronaviruses.

Conventional type

Symptoms such as fever and respiratory tract are present, and pneumonia can be seen on imaging.

Heavy type

Meet any of the following:

  • Respiratory distress, respiratory frequency ≥ 30 times/min;
  • At rest, oxygen saturation ≤ 93%;
  • Arterial oxygen partial pressure (PAO)/oxygen uptake concentration (FIO) ≤ 300 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa).

Critical type

Meet one of the following conditions:

  • Respiratory failure occurs and mechanical ventilation is required;
  • Shock;
  • ICU monitoring and treatment are required for patients with another organ failure.

What should I do?

There is currently no effective treatment for pneumonia caused by the new coronavirus. Daily life management focuses on the prevention of infection and effective isolation of suspected and confirmed cases.

Home care

The pneumonia infected by the new coronavirus has the phenomenon of family aggregation, and if there are suspected symptoms, they should go to the department of infection for treatment in time, which requires isolation treatment in hospitals with effective isolation conditions and protective conditions.

Daily life management

Diet

  • Do not eat wild animals (namely game), poultry, meat, eggs to fully cooked food;
  • Pay attention to nutrition, avoid partial food, ensure the intake of food diversification, especially fresh vegetables, fruits;
  • Develop good eating habits, eat regularly, avoid overeating.

Movement

Exercise and control your weight. In addition, moderate exercise also helps to improve immunity.

Way of life

  • Stop smoking and limit alcohol;
  • Ensure adequate sleep, pay attention to rest, avoid staying up late;
  • Pay attention to mental health, pay attention to ease tension, reduce psychological pressure.

Daily disease monitoring

Pay attention to the monitoring of temperature, such as fever, fatigue, cough and other symptoms of timely visit the doctor. In case of residence or travel history of the foci (wuhan city) within two weeks prior to the onset of the disease, medical history of contact with confirmed or suspected patients, or collective manifestations of the disease, the patient should seek medical treatment in time and take the initiative to isolate.

Special considerations

  • The incubation period of the disease can have 1 to 2 weeks, if there is a confirmed or suspected patient contact history, even if there is no fever and other symptoms, also need to take the initiative to isolate.
  • To remove isolation, body temperature should return to normal for more than 3 days, respiratory symptoms should be significantly improved, and pathogen tests should be negative for 2 consecutive times (at least 1 day apart).

Prevention

When an infectious disease breaks out and spreads, the measures taken include measures aimed at pathogens, susceptible population, transmission route and epidemic focus, etc.

For the time being, there is no effective vaccine for pneumonia infected by new coronavirus. Personal protection is the most practical and feasible method, including not going to crowded places, washing hands frequently, drinking more water, paying attention to rest, etc.

Specific preventive measures are as follows:

  • Try to minimize going out, do not go to crowded places, and avoid close contact with anyone with cold or flu-like symptoms.
  • Pay attention to wearing a medical-surgical mask or N95 mask when going out to public places, seeking medical treatment and taking transportation.
  • Do not contact, purchase or eat wild animals (i.e. game) and avoid contact with wild animals, poultry and livestock without protection.
  • Pay attention to hand hygiene, wash hands frequently, use hand sanitizer or soap, wash hands with running water, or use antibacterial hand gel containing alcohol;
  • When sneezing or coughing, do not cover your mouth and nose with your hand, elbow or paper towel.
  • Keep rooms and workplaces clean, open windows frequently, and keep ventilation more often.
  • Pay attention to drink more water, rest more, avoid staying up late and exercise moderately to improve individual immunity.
  • Pay attention to nutrition and a reasonable diet. Meat, poultry, and eggs should be fully cooked before eating.
  • Prepare common materials, such as thermometers, disposable masks, household disinfection supplies, etc.

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