Here are 20 common questions to prevent 2019-nCoV. Before you are afraid of this unknown virus (or infectious disease), reading this knowledge will make it easier for you to deal with it calmly.
1. How to choose a mask?
Wearing a mask is an effective means of blocking the spread of respiratory secretions. At present, the masks that can be seen in the market mainly include medical protective masks (such as N95 masks), medical-surgical masks, and ordinary disposable medical masks. In addition, there are “net red masks” such as cotton masks and sponge masks that are often worn by various stars in the market.
Citizens choose medical surgical masks for daily protection. N95 masks have better anti-illness effects, but have poor breathability and large breathing resistance, and are not suitable for long-term wearing.
The picture comes from the “Guidelines for Public Protection of Pneumonia Infected by New Coronavirus” of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention
2. How to wear a mask correctly?
When wearing a mask, fully unfold the folded surface, completely cover the mouth, nose, and jaw, and then compress the nose clip to make the mask fit the face completely.
Wash your hands before wearing a mask, or avoid touching the inside of the mask during wearing the mask to reduce the possibility of the mask being contaminated. The inside and outside of the mask must be clearly distinguished. The light color is the inside. The inside should be attached to the mouth and nose, and the dark side should be outward.
Masks should be changed regularly, not on the inside or outside, not on both sides.
3. The mask has expired, can I still use it?
Mask expiration is not recommended in principle. For medical-surgical masks are disinfected and sterile, bacteria may grow if expired. Now the situation is special. If you use an expired mask, you need to check whether the storage place is dry and whether the original packaging is moldy or damaged, and has an odor or discoloration. If this is not the case, it can be used as a backup.
4. Can I wear a mask without a dense crowd?
Go to a crowded place, because there are many people and there is no ventilation, there may be pathogens around you, then wearing a mask is necessary. However, in a densely populated area, if the environment is open, the pathogens are diluted and not enough to infect people, and they may not wear masks. However, if you have symptoms such as cough or fever, you need to wear a mask to prevent infection.
5. Shortage of masks, can I wear them repeatedly? Can I reuse it after boiling?
Medical surgical masks cannot be reused. The same is true of the N95 protective mask in principle.
But the actual situation is special. For ordinary people, masks are now scarce. If there is no fever or catarrhal symptoms (runny nose, sneezing, nasal congestion, etc.), it can be reused, and the repetition cannot be more than 5 times.
But we have to emphasize that reuse is dangerous. After boiling, the protective effect of the mask weakens, so it is not recommended to reuse it.
In addition to wearing masks, we also emphasize washing hands frequently. The new coronavirus enters the body by touching the mucous membranes such as the nose and mouth after touching by hands. Washing hands with soap and flowing water for more than 20 seconds can effectively kill pathogens and protect them.
6. How to do disinfection at home?
- Alcohol: Alcohol can denature and coagulate the protein of bacteria. Disinfect the skin with 75% medical alcohol.
- Steamer: It can be disinfected for 20 minutes from the beginning of boiling. It is suitable for disinfecting tableware, clothes and gauze to wrap wounds.
- Boiling: 100 ℃ can also denature the protein of bacteria, and all items that need to be sterilized need to be immersed in the water. Suitable for tableware, certain toys, bedding, etc.
- Air cleaning: To keep indoor air clean, regular ventilation is necessary, especially in autumn and winter. Don’t neglect ventilation due to cold.
- Potassium permanganate solution: Use 5 ‰ potassium permanganate to disinfect tableware, vegetables and fruits. After soaking for 1 minute, rinse with clean drinking water.
- Bleaching powder: Bleaching powder can make bacteria’s enzymes inactive and cause death. It is a very effective disinfection method. Use 1 ~ 3% bleach water (bleach water plus water) on tables, chairs, beds, floors, walls, etc., and wipe it with a rag to achieve disinfection.
- Disinfection solution: chlorine-containing disinfection solution can effectively disinfect and sterilize. It can be disinfected and sterilized after being directly diluted in a plastic pot. Suitable for tables, chairs, beds, walls, floors, etc.
7. How to prevent new coronavirus infection?
To prevent new coronavirus infections, the following measures need to be taken:
- Avoid going to high-endemic areas
- Avoid going to crowded places. Avoid closed, airless public places and crowded places, especially children, the elderly and people with low immunity. Remember to wear a mask when going out.
- Strengthen window ventilation. Open windows every day for a while at home. Strengthening air circulation can effectively prevent respiratory infections.
- Pay attention to personal hygiene. Wash your hands frequently, using soap and running water or disposable hand sanitizer. When sneezing or coughing, cover your nose and mouth with a tissue or elbow. Do not cover your nose and mouth with your hands.
- Observe your doctor promptly. If you have fever (especially high fever), cough, shortness of breath, and other symptoms of respiratory tract infections, you should wear a mask and seek medical treatment.
8. How to prevent new coronavirus infections at home?
- Enhance health awareness, exercise regularly, go to bed early and get up early, not staying up late can improve autoimmunity;
- Maintain good personal hygiene. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. Wash your hands often and never touch your eyes, nose and mouth with dirty hands;
- The room should be ventilated and kept clean and tidy;
- Try to avoid close contact with people who have respiratory symptoms;
- Try to avoid crowded and confined spaces, such as wearing masks;
- Avoid contact with wild animals or livestock;
- Adhere to safe eating habits, eat meat and eggs cooked;
- Pay close attention to symptoms such as fever and cough. Be sure to seek medical treatment in the nearest place when such symptoms occur.
9. How can I protect myself from new coronavirus infections?
- Coronavirus is mainly transmitted by droplets, and surgical masks are worn properly;
- Do not cover directly with your hands when sneezing or coughing;
- Wash your hands correctly and promptly;
- Improve immunity and try to avoid crowded and closed places. Strengthening exercise, regular work and rest, and improving autoimmunity are important means to avoid infection.
10. I have recently been to a high-incidence area, what should I pay attention to when I return to my place of residence?
If you have been to an epidemic-prone area recently, such as Wuhan, you should pay special attention to the physical condition of yourself and those around you when you return to your place of residence, and try to avoid going to public places and crowded places. If you have symptoms such as fever, fatigue, dry cough, muscle aches, shortness of breath, etc., you should wear a mask correctly and seek medical treatment immediately. You should take the initiative to inform the doctor of your Wuhan travel history and contact history.
11. What should I pay attention to when coughing and sneezing?
When coughing and sneezing, droplets containing viruses can spread into the air within about 2 meters. People around you may be infected by inhaling these droplets, so pay attention to:
- Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or elbow instead of your hands when you cough or sneeze.
- Put paper towels used for sneezing and coughing in a covered trash can.
- After sneezing and coughing, it is best to wash your hands thoroughly with soap or hand sanitizer and rinse with running water.
12. How to disinfect new coronavirus?
The new coronavirus can kill the virus in 30 minutes at 56 ℃. Chlorine-containing disinfectants, alcohol, iodine, peroxides and other disinfectants can also kill the virus.
75% alcohol and iodophor can be used for skin disinfection (Note: Iodine or other mucosal disinfectants for mucous membranes) can be used for disinfection of home environment. Chlorine disinfectants (such as 84 disinfectant, bleach or other aluminum-containing disinfectant / effervescent Flakes) Wipe or soak disinfection with a solution with an effective chlorine concentration of 500 mg / L or more. Heat-resistant items can be sterilized by boiling for 15 minutes.
13. How can I wash my hands effectively?
Remember to wash your hands before meals, after going to the toilet, after going home, touching garbage, and touching the animals. When washing your hands, wash your hands thoroughly with running water and soap or hand sanitizer, rubbing for at least 20 seconds. For the convenience of memory, the kneading steps are simply summarized into seven-character formulas: inside-outside-clamp-bow-big-stand-wrist.
Inside: Rub your palms against your palms.
Outside: Rub the palms of your opponent with your hands crossed.
Clip: Palm to palm, rub your fingers together.
Bow: refers to bending and clasping, turning and rubbing.
Big: Hold your thumb in the palm and turn and rub.
Standing: Rub your fingertips in the palm.
Wrist: Clean your wrist.
If your hands are not significantly dirty, use alcohol-based hand sanitizer to avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with your unclean hands.
14. What should be paid attention to in diet to prevent new coronavirus infection?
Daily dietary recommendations are based on the “Food Guidelines for Chinese Residents” for food matching. Care should be taken to maintain a reasonable diet and ensure balanced nutrition. Pay attention to the diversity of food, with appropriate thickness and vegetarian diet. Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables, supplement vitamins and fiber, and drink plenty of water.
Don’t listen to the claims that remedies and food therapy can treat new coronavirus infections. If suspicious symptoms are found, take precautions and go to a regular hospital.
15. How to prevent new coronavirus infection at home?
Ensure indoor air circulation and thoroughly clean the furniture environment at least once a week. When the surface or floor of the article is contaminated with respiratory secretions, vomit or excreta, the visible dirt should be removed with a disposable absorbent cloth that is absorbent, and then the contaminated area and its vicinity should be cleaned and disinfected with a suitable disinfectant.
16. How to prevent new coronavirus infection when going out?
First of all, make sure your body is healthy. If you have any recent symptoms such as fever and cough, you should postpone your trip and go to the hospital for treatment.
Secondly, travel should try to avoid areas with high immunity, such as Wuhan. If you go to other areas, you should also pay attention to personal protection, such as wearing disposable medical surgical masks properly, covering your mouth and nose with tissue paper or flexing your elbows when sneezing or coughing. For eyes, wash your hands with running water and soap if possible, or clean your hands with a no-disinfectant solution.
17. What protective measures does the elderly, children and other frail people have?
Elderly people are susceptible to the new coronavirus. During the epidemic, they should not enter or exit publicly intensive public places to reduce unnecessary social activities. Travelers should wear masks and wash their hands frequently to strengthen the cleaning and disinfection of the home environment. Keep indoor air flowing.
Although there are not many cases of children, they are still a key group that needs protection. While washing hands, traveling less, wearing masks, and ventilating frequently, you should also tell relatives and friends to avoid close contact with children, especially infants, such as kissing, Amused and so on.
18. What protection measures should be taken when going to the farmers’ market?
When shopping at farmers’ markets where wild animals are sold, people should wear masks, avoid contact with wild animals, and do not slaughter or eat sick, dead poultry, or wild animals.
19. What precautions should be taken when attending a friend’s dinner?
If you have fever, cough, sore throat and other discomforts, you should not participate in a meal. In the epidemic season, reduce the frequency of dinners and reduce the risk of disease. If you must attend, wear a mask to reduce the spread of the virus. When parties or dinners, try to choose a well-ventilated place.
20. What protective measures should be taken when going to crowd gathering places?
Try to avoid crowded public places to reduce the chance of contact with the sick. If you must go to a public place, wear a mask to reduce the risk of exposure to pathogens, provided that you choose the correct mask and wear it properly. At the same time, try to avoid going to endemic areas to reduce the risk of infection.