Today is ” World Sleep Day”. The International Foundation for Mental Health and Neuroscience established it in 2001 with the original intention of hoping people to pay attention to the importance and quality of sleep. But until now, sleep, the instinct originally related to biological rhythm, is still a headache. Modern people always ” care about” and ” give up” sleep.
Sleep disorders are very common in the population, but its warning signs, clinical manifestations and health effects are not always fully understood. We can roughly divide sleep disorders into three situations: ” can’t sleep,” ” Sleep not to wake” and ” can’t sleep well.”
Sleeping for more than 30 minutes is ” insomnia”
Sleep is an active process of human body, which can restore spirit and relieve fatigue. Adequate sleep, balanced diet and proper exercise are the three health standards recognized by the international community. It is no exaggeration to say that having good sleep habits and sleep quality is a ” luxury” thing for many adults.
At present, there are 89 sleep diseases recognized by the international industry. However, regardless of the number of diseases, they all belong to sleep disorders. Sleep disorders are manifestations of abnormal sleep volume and abnormal behaviors during sleep, and are also manifestations of normal rhythmic alternation disorder of sleep and awakening.
Sleep disorders include ” unable to sleep”, ” unable to wake up” and ” unable to sleep well”. Usually the most impressive manifestation is insomnia, which is also the most common sleep problem in clinic.
Sleep is people’s basic physiological needs, sleep quality is closely related to people’s health. Lack of sleep will lead to a marked decline in memory, accompanied by malnutrition, atrophy and even apoptosis of neuronal cells, which is directly related to the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Good sleep helps to remove proteins related to dementia, promotes brain development and growth, eliminates fatigue, restores energy and physical strength, and has obvious protective effect on memory.
The Sleep Disorders Group of the Neurology Branch of the Chinese Medical Association has formulated ” Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Insomnia in Chinese Adults”, which defines insomnia as ” a subjective experience in which patients are dissatisfied with sleep time and/or quality and affect daytime social functions”. One of its diagnostic criteria is that it is difficult to fall asleep and the sleep time exceeds 30 minutes.
According to the etiology, insomnia can be divided into primary and secondary types. ” Primary insomnia” usually lacks a clear cause or leaves insomnia symptoms after eliminating the possible causes of insomnia, mainly including psychophysiological insomnia, idiopathic insomnia and subjective insomnia. ” Secondary insomnia” includes insomnia caused by physical diseases, mental disorders, drug abuse, etc., as well as insomnia related to sleep disordered breathing, sleep dyskinesia, etc.
Because insomnia often occurs simultaneously with other diseases, it is sometimes difficult to determine the causal relationship between these diseases and insomnia. In recent years, the industry has proposed the concept of comorbid insomnia to describe insomnia accompanied by other diseases.
Anxious people are more prone to sleep disorders.
Most patients are ” secondary insomnia” clinically, of which insomnia caused by psychological and spiritual factors is especially common, accounting for more than half of the causes of patients. In addition, sleep environment, biological rhythm, body diseases, improper treatment of sleep disorders, etc., can also cause insomnia.
We focus on the subjective and relatively stubborn psychological and spiritual factors. Psychological and spiritual factors can produce and aggravate insomnia, which comes from the patients’ bad hints to themselves.
We have encountered some ” strange” sleep habits in clinic. For example, there is a patient who needs air circulation in the room to sleep and cannot breathe without opening the window to sleep. The test found that if the window was closed after midnight, he actually slept well. What’s more, if you go to bed at night, you have to not only open the window of your home, but also open the unit door downstairs so that you can sleep soundly.
Other patients have more common sleep habits, such as turning on the TV or listening to the radio. Normal sleep needs are comfortable, dark and quiet environment. Why can such people fall asleep when they are disturbed by sound? It is precisely because the sound in the TV or radio is a kind of interference that they will divert their attention and then go to sleep after relaxing. This process just shows that they already have sleep problems.
These people tend to be nervous and anxious. When they fall asleep, their sympathetic nerves are excited, they cannot control their thoughts and think repeatedly, thus they cannot sleep smoothly. Even if they fall asleep, they are in a shallow sleep state and are easy to wake up. Once the environmental conditions change, such as the TV or radio is turned off, they are likely to wake up. This is actually a kind of conditioned reflex, and people’s sleep is ” dependent” on other objects or events.
There is an important problem to point out-anxious people are more likely to suffer from insomnia. Anxiety can be divided into three categories: anxiety of normal people; Excessive anxiety, namely anxiety tendency; Anxiety disorder. Clinically, insomnia in some patients is related to these three kinds of anxiety, such as troubles, changes in work or life, or anxiety.
Insomnia is a sleep disease, and it can also be one of the typical manifestations of anxiety. Therefore, doctors need to find out whether the patient is simply insomnia or insomnia symptoms caused by anxiety disorders and other diseases so as to provide symptomatic treatment.
Three Standards Can Test Sleep Quality
There is a popular saying in the society that everyone has different sleep patterns and it is hard to say who is right and who is wrong.
It is true that sleep patterns cannot be unified by everyone, but there are health standards. If you want to know whether you sleep healthily or not, you can go to the sleep center of a regular hospital for a systematic evaluation, but this evaluation is more complicated and patients need to set aside time. Here is a simple self-test method that can help you initially judge whether sleep is ideal. The three criteria are: the timing of sleep, the duration of sleep, and the feeling after waking up.
One is the timing of sleep.When to sleep is crucial. From a scientific point of view, it is best to sleep at 10 o’clock in the evening. It is unscientific to sleep too early or too late. However, the work and living habits of modern people have changed greatly. Late sleep is a common phenomenon, and it should also be done not later than 12 o’clock.
The second is the length of sleep.Usually, 7 to 8 hours is the length of sleep to meet the physiological needs of adults. If a person sleeps only three or four hours a day, or more than ten hours, there will definitely be problems. At the same time, people’s sleep is continuous, not seven or eight hours pieced together in 24 hours a day.
The third is the feeling after waking up.When you wake up feeling refreshed, it proves that you have slept well. On the contrary, if you wake up feeling sleepy, weak, fidgety, unable to concentrate, and having reduced working ability, you are not sleeping well. If these problems occur and cannot be alleviated or overcome, a detailed examination should be conducted in the hospital and measures should be taken to intervene.
In fact, sleep is consistent with the biological clock and also affects each other. Human biological clock is controlled by both genetic genes and acquired behaviors. The result of the common action all the year round forms the inherent biological rhythm, and if suddenly changed, it will lead to neurological and endocrine dysfunction.
Then, will the situation of the night shift workers be more serious? Not necessarily. We believe that people who work night shifts all the year round and sleep in black and white are fine. Because the human body has strong adjustment ability, the long-term sleep pattern has formed a pattern different from others. What is worse is the sleep mode that frequently changes between night shift and day shift in a short period of time. If there are only two night shifts a week, the body can still make adjustments, and if there are three or more times, the body is difficult to adjust. In addition, some people have certain sleep disorders and are more sensitive and difficult to adjust to the adverse effects of black-and-white inversion than others.
Snoring during sleep is also ” not sleeping well.”
There is evidence that when a person’s lifestyle is not consistent with his internal biological clock for a long time, the risk of suffering from various diseases will increase. For example, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, Alzheimer’s disease and other serious brain diseases, and even the occurrence and development of tumors. Therefore, sleep experts will make health calls-don’t stay up late.
But an interesting phenomenon is that people almost all know and admit that bad sleep will affect their health, but it is difficult to put it into practice immediately and change the habit of staying up late. This is because, like smoking, bad sleep is a relatively long process that affects people’s health. Without the feeling of ” disaster”, there will be no determination to act immediately.
Why do we think that many modern people always ” care about” and ” give up” while improving sleep habits and sleep quality? In fact, it is because they are worried that lack of sleep is harmful to their health, and at the same time they lack self-control and mobility to cultivate a healthy sleep pattern. Young people’s lack of attention to sleep may also be related to their strong ability to regulate sleep, which masks potential risks. However, clinically, we found that the sleep disorder problem only existed in the middle-aged and elderly people more than 30 years ago has now covered the young people, and the proportion of young patients seeking medical treatment is still high.
Similarly, sleep is not healthy enough, ” sleep not awake” and ” sleep not good” are also unhealthy. The standard of ” sleepless” is 24 hours of sleep more than 10 hours, and severe cases will develop ” narcolepsy”. ” Poor sleep” refers to the lack of continuity in the sleep process, such as waking up frequently, sleepwalking, talking in a dream, snoring, etc. The most common of these are snoring and/or sleep apnea.
People who snore during sleep are defined as those who do not sleep well. The reason is that although snorers seem to sleep soundly, they are actually hard to get into deep sleep, which is manifested by a lack of energy during the day and a feeling of not getting enough sleep.
Sleep apnea is a common disease with potential risks, which can be manifested as sleep snoring, repeated apnea, repeated sleep apnea at night, elevated blood pressure, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, morning headache, daytime sleepiness, hypomnesis and other manifestations, and even sudden death at night in severe cases. Our definition of sleep apnea is ” apnea for more than 10 seconds”. It is suggested that such patients should go to the hospital to monitor their nighttime respiratory sleep, identify the type, degree and cause of occurrence, and then carry out corresponding treatment.
Extended reading：How to take sleeping pills?
At present, the sleeping pills commonly used clinically for treating sleep disorders are the second generation represented by Anding tablets and diazepam and the third generation represented by zopiclone, which play a role in inducing sleep and deepening sleep.
Although they are all sleeping pills, the applicable groups are different. Short-acting drugs should be used for those who have difficulty falling asleep. People who have difficulty maintaining sleep and people who wake up early should use the medium-effect drugs. This kind of medicine needs to be judged by the doctor and taken only when necessary, because even at a safe dose, it will lead to potential problems such as drowsiness during the day.
Sleeping pills are prescription sedatives and have certain side effects. Patients should take them according to the doctor’s advice according to their individual conditions. They must not take them casually or in increments.