Pregnancy: what nutrients do you need? How to prevent malnutrition?

Analysis of the most important nutrients during pregnancy

Fetal development requires the joint participation of lipids, proteins, taurine, folic acid, vitamin A, zinc, iron, iodine and other nutrients.

Protein

Protein is the material basis of life and brain intelligence. Protein deficiency can cause fetal brain development disorder, affect intelligence level, and lead to cognitive impairment.

Since protein cannot be stored in the ” nutrition bank” and the fetus needs protein every day for development, the pregnant mother must have it in her daily food. This is something the pregnant mother must pay attention to!

However, excessive protein intake will increase the burden on liver and kidney, accelerate the loss of calcium in bones, and affect the healthy development of fetal bones. So take it in moderation.

lipid

Fat is essential to maintain normal body functions, especially brain development, eye development and nervous system functions.

Inadequate fat intake by pregnant mothers can cause intrauterine growth retardation, mental retardation and obvious visual impairment of the fetus, and affect the baby’s fat reserves, resulting in weak and sickly newborns.

The recommended intake of DHA during pregnancy is 200 mg per day, and the maximum intake is 2,000 mg. The daily consumption of oil for pregnant women is recommended to be 10ml of linseed oil or perilla seed oil, which is rich in α -linolenic acid. 10 ml of camellia seed oil or olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids; 10 ml of other oil.

Carbohydrates

Glucose is the only energy source of fetal brain. The rapid increase of fetal brain cells and the development of the whole nervous system require a large amount of glucose. Pregnant women who eat less during pregnancy and gain less weight often suffer from mental retardation and lower IQ. A 60 kg pregnant woman needs about 300 grams of carbohydrate per day.

Vitamins

1. vitamin a. Vitamin A, also known as retinol, can promote normal vision and bone development of fetus, and is necessary for maintaining the health of skin, hair, teeth and gums, as well as cell growth and regeneration.

The recommended daily amount of vitamin A for normal pregnant women is 8000 units. Excessive vitamin A supplementation will cause poisoning of pregnant women and teratogenicity of fetus.

2. vitamin b. Pregnant women may suffer from vomiting and gestational diabetes if they lack vitamin B.

Folic acid deficiency can lead to congenital neural tube malformation. Lack of folic acid in early pregnancy is easy to cause neural tube abnormalities such as fetal spina bifida and anencephaly. Severe pregnancy reaction is easy to occur. Lack of folic acid in the middle and late pregnancy can increase the incidence of preeclampsia and placental abruption. Folic acid is almost not stored in the body and needs to be continuously replenished.

3. vitamin e. Also known as tocopherol, it can promote human metabolism, enhance body endurance and improve immunity. It can resist free radicals, prevent miscarriage, hemolytic anemia and myopia. Lack of pregnant women will be manifested as dry skin, roughness, excessive aging, prone to pregnancy spots, and prone to abortion, premature delivery, preeclampsia, low birth weight infants, etc.

4. Minerals. Minerals are extremely important for fetal development.

  • (1) Zinc. Zinc deficiency can cause fetal growth retardation, poor immune function, brain development retardation, premature delivery, low birth weight and even malformation of newborn. Animal experiments show that zinc deficiency will damage the hippocampus of the fetal brain and reduce the memory and learning ability of future babies. Zinc deficiency in pregnant women can aggravate pregnancy reaction. The content of zinc in horse meat, oyster, melon seeds, animal liver, sausage, cheese, silkworm chrysalis, mushroom, agaric, egg yolk and other foods is relatively high. Excessive intake of zinc over 45 mg per day is likely to lead to premature delivery.
  • (2) Iron. Iron deficiency in pregnant women is mainly caused by iron deficiency anemia, which causes fatigue, weakness, decreased resistance and increased complications during pregnancy. For the fetus, it is prone to premature birth, stillbirth, growth retardation or intellectual decline. Iron-rich foods are arranged from high to low: black fungus, laver, sesame paste, highland barley, animal liver, animal blood, etc.
  • (3) calcium. After a woman becomes pregnant, her demand for calcium greatly increases. The calcium intake of pregnant women in our country is seriously insufficient. Lack of calcium will lead to fetal growth retardation, late tooth emergence after birth, rickets, etc. Calcium deficiency can lead to calf spasm, backache, arthralgia, edema, pregnancy hypertension, etc. Fish floss, dried shrimps, dried small fish, dried shrimps, fresh snail meat, kelp sprouts, sesame paste and black sea belt are the foods with the most abundant calcium content.
  • (4) Iodine. Iodine is one of the essential trace elements in human body and is called ” intelligence element”. If the fetus is iodine deficient, it will suffer from congenital dementia, and at the same time, it is prone to miscarriage, stillbirth, growth retardation, congenital malformation, underdevelopment, etc. Pregnant women are prone to goiter due to iodine deficiency. The recommended daily iodine level for pregnant and lactating women is 200 micrograms.

Malnutrition during pregnancy

What is malnutrition during pregnancy

During pregnancy, due to the healthy development of the fetus, the growth of the placenta, and the increase in the working intensity of the important organs of the pregnant woman, the nutrition to be ingested by the expectant mother is increased. Therefore, increase diet during pregnancy to ensure adequate nutrition intake. If the nutrition in the diet during pregnancy cannot meet the needs of the fetus and pregnant women or there are phenomena such as overnutrition, it is considered malnutrition during pregnancy.

Which pregnant women are most vulnerable to malnutrition

  • (1) Pregnant women lack nutrition knowledge related to pregnancy, which is easy to lead to malnutrition due to improper nutrition intake.
  • (2) dieters to keep fit. Dieting will make pregnant women suffer from insufficient protein and fat intake as well as lack of trace elements such as calcium and zinc, which is prone to malnutrition.
  • (3) Pregnant vomit seriously leads to nutrition loss. Strong pregnancy vomiting will inevitably lead to the loss of the nutrition already taken in, and at the same time, the diet will be greatly reduced, resulting in the reduction of nutrition intake. If the time is too long, malnutrition will easily occur.
  • (4) Excessive diet leads to malnutrition. Once pregnant, expectant mothers will intentionally supplement a large amount of meat and fruits, but they do not realize that this will leave a lot of fat, sugar, etc. in the body. At the same time, due to insufficient intake of trace elements and vitamins, there will be some nutrition surplus and some nutrition deficiency.
  • (5) Pregnant women are picky about food, resulting in uneven nutrition. If food is taken according to the diet habits during the period of non-pregnancy, it will lead to insufficient nutrition and cannot supplement the rich nutrition required by the growth and development of the fetus.

Malnutrition during pregnancy may lead to anemia and hypertension during pregnancy, as well as fetal malformation, slow development of intelligence and height, etc. The incidence rate of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women in China is 60%, zinc deficiency rate is 50%, protein deficiency rate is 50%, nearly 100% of pregnant women lack calcium, vitamin B, vitamin C and other vitamins are also deficient in varying degrees. The main causes of malnutrition during pregnancy should be found and targeted treatment should be carried out.

Nutritional supplement during pregnancy

Because pregnant women, a special group, need more vitamins and mineral nutrients, and the increase ratio is higher than calories, they cannot blindly increase their diet to meet them. This will lead to excess calories, excessive weight gain for pregnant women, or gestational diabetes mellitus. Proper fortified nutrition is a very useful choice, especially the elements such as folic acid, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, etc. which need to be increased more during pregnancy. The use of nutrients before and after pregnancy is conducive to the birth of a healthy and intelligent child, and is also beneficial to the recovery of pregnant women after childbirth.

The key to nutrition supplement during pregnancy

1. Early pregnancy. The first trimester of pregnancy is an important stage of fetal development, at which time the fetal five senses, heart and nervous system begin to take shape. At this time, besides paying attention to the intake of high-quality protein, it is also necessary to ensure adequate intake of folic acid, zinc, vitamin E and multivitamin minerals. The standard intake of folic acid for women in early pregnancy is 600 micrograms per day.

2. The second trimester of pregnancy is the skeletal development period of the fetus, and the weight of the fetus also increases rapidly during this period. At this time, attention should be paid to the supplement of calcium, iron and other elements that are helpful to the development of baby’s bones. The standard daily intake of calcium and iron is 1,000 mg and 25 mg respectively. Continue to supplement protein, α -linolenic acid, DHA, multivitamins and other nutrients in the second trimester of pregnancy to appropriately increase the calories in diet.

3. Late pregnancy. The third trimester of pregnancy is a period of rapid development of the fetus. At this time, besides taking enough calcium for the growth of the fetus, protein, DHA, iron, copper, zinc, vitamin B, B, etc. should also be appropriately added, which can not only help the healthy development of the fetus, but also prevent the problems of fetal anemia, low body weight, etc. More calories should be added to the diet.

Nutritional supplement dose during pregnancy

1. Ensure protein intake. Protein is 55g in the first trimester, 70g in the second trimester and 85g in the third trimester every day. If the protein in the diet does not meet this standard, additional protein powder needs to be added.

2. Supplement adequate folic acid. Add 600 micrograms a day. 3. Zinc supplement. Daily intake of 9.5 ~ 40 mg. 4. Iron supplement. Daily intake of 20 ~ 42 mg.

5. Calcium supplement. Take 1 ~ 2 grams per day. If the calcium intake in the diet does not meet this standard, additional calcium supplements are required.

6. Supplement selenium. Take 65 ~ 400 micrograms every day.

7. Supplement other vitamins. Including vitamins a, e and c. 8. Diversification of food. 20 ~ 30 species per day.

Precautions for Nutrition Supplement during Pregnancy

1. Pay attention to daily diet. Daily diet is the foundation.

2. Nutrition supplement should be in proper amount, neither lack nor excess. 3. Generally, the dosage is adjusted by taking 3 weeks as a time unit to achieve better conditioning effect.

4. Nutritional conditioning takes effect slowly, generally 3 months is a course of treatment. 5. Changing the unhealthy lifestyle and reducing the demand for nutrition will have better conditioning effect.

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