Eight important problems about rabies

September 28, is “World rabies Day,” why the World Health Organization to set up a special holiday for the disease? That’s because rabies is a terrifying infectious disease that kills 100% of the world’s population and kills nearly 60,000 people a year.

In fact, rabies can be completely prevented or even eliminated in the world, the key is to pay enough attention to the management of dogs. In order to promote the goal of global eradication of rabies, the World Health Organization (WHO) has designated 28 September each year as World rabies Day.


Eight important problems about rabies

Whether or not you are interested in rabies, the fact is that rabies is not far away from us, and the consequences are very serious.

We fear cancer because it is so difficult to cure and the mortality rate is so high, but the death rate of rabies is a staggering 100%!

Here are eight facts about rabies to help you better prevent and respond.

1.Rabies is transmitted by dogs in 99% of the cases, with a mortality rate of 100%.

Humans were aware of rabies in 2000 BC. The Code of Pyralama, promulgated around 1984 BC in the Kingdom of Eshunna (located in what is now Iraq), contains provisions on the management of dogs and rabies, requiring dog owners to show signs of rabies when they are found to be in possession of rabies. Immediate quarantine measures should be taken to prevent dogs from biting people; if a person is bitten by a rabid dog, the dog owner will be severely punished.

Rabies is a zoonotic and terrifying infectious disease. Once bitten by dogs, they die very quickly, and the mortality rate is almost 100%.

99% of rabies in humans is transmitted by dogs and the remaining 1% by bats. Transmission of rabies by other carnivores is extremely rare. In theory, rabies people can also transmit rabies, but so far has not been confirmed by the case.

Before the rabies vaccine was invented, once a man was bitten by a dog, his miserable fate would befall him. In Europe, people bitten by dogs are usually taken to blacksmiths and ironed with red iron in the hope that they will kill the rabies virus. Most people bitten by dogs do not die from rabies, but from such “torture”. What is more, out of fear of the horrors of rabies, some people commit suicide after being bitten by a dog, or demand to be killed by others.

2. Worldwide, nearly 60,000 people die each year from rabies, 96 percent in Asia and Africa.

According to a report released by the world health organization in June 2018, rabies kills 59000 people a year (nearly half of them children) and kills one person every nine minutes, 59.6% in Asia and 36.4% in Africa.

The incubation period for rabies is usually two to three months, from less than a week to a year, depending on factors such as wound location and rabies viral load. The initial symptoms of rabies are fever and the wound site is often painful or has an abnormal or unexplained tingling, or burning sensation.

Rabies is divided into manic rabies and paralytic rabies, the former accounted for 80%, the latter accounted for 20%. The symptoms of manic rabies are hyperfunction, restlessness, fear of water, and sometimes fear of wind. A few days later, the patient died of cardiopulmonary failure.

Paralytic rabies is less severe and usually longer, starting from the wound site, the muscles gradually paralyzed, and then the patient gradually fell into a coma, and finally died. Paralytic rabies is often misdiagnosed, resulting in underreporting of rabies. Therefore, the actual number of rabies deaths will be greater than the reported number.

3. The rabies vaccine should be reliable and be administered in strict accordance with the operational specifications.

French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) developed a rabies vaccine in 1885, from then on, mankind has an effective way to prevent rabies. But through rabies vaccination to prevent rabies, the premise is that the vaccine to be reliable, and must be bitten by the dog, strictly in accordance with the operating specifications to treat the wound, injection vaccine.

When bitten by a dog, the first thing to do is to wash the wound for at least 15 minutes alternately with soapy water (or other weak alkaline detergent) and flowing water under a certain pressure. If you are far away from the medical and epidemic prevention unit, you should wash the wound nearby, and then go to the medical and epidemic prevention unit to continue to deal with the wound and vaccinate against rabies after the cleaning has been completed.

Because rabies vaccine is related to human life, the World Health Organization is very strict on the certification of the vaccine. As of August 2017, The WHO-certified rabies vaccine for humans has only three brands: it is “Wilber” by France’s Sanofi-Pasteur, “(Verorab),” by Germany’s GlaxoSmithKline, and “Nobavut” by GlaxoSmithKline, India, by GlaxoSmithKline, India. Division production of Ripple (Rabipur).

According to “30 years of rabies vaccination: clinical data and Global experience,” published in Vaccine expert Review, issue 14, 2015, If the rabies vaccine is reliable and is administered in strict accordance with the operation specifications within 10 days (after 3 injections), the antibody turns positive, that is, even if bitten by a rabies dog, the possibility of contracting rabies is basically ruled out even if it does not develop within 10 days.

The “Technical Guide for rabies Prevention and Control” issued by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention also points out that most rabies vaccines can produce neutralizing antibodies on the 7th day after vaccination and 100% antibody positive on the 14th day.

It should be noted that immunization against rabies is not lifelong and is reliable for up to six months. If you are bitten by a dog after six months, you will have to be re-vaccinated.

4. Poverty should not be an obstacle to rabies vaccination.

Rabies vaccination costs are relatively high, the world average of about 350 yuan. But for some destitute residents, people who are bitten by dogs are reluctant to be vaccinated against rabies, let alone vaccinated against rabies. Therefore, the incidence of rabies in poor areas is higher.

A number of developing countries have recognized the magnitude of the problem and taken action to ensure that people bitten by dogs are vaccinated against rabies.

For example, the Government of Bhutan has committed itself to defraying all costs of rabies vaccination. In order to allow people bitten by dogs to be vaccinated in time, the Rwandan government also used drones to transport rabies vaccines.

Thailand had reduced the number of human cases of rabies by more than 90 per cent since the 1980s through large-scale vaccinations against rabies in dogs and was determined to eliminate human rabies by 2020.

5. It is important to popularize the knowledge of prevention. It can save people’s lives.

As mentioned above, the prevention of rabies in addition to reliable vaccine, but also strictly in accordance with operational norms to handle wounds, rabies vaccination. This requires widespread knowledge of rabies prevention, so that all residents know what to do if bitten by a dog.

Goa, India, has made remarkable progress in the eradication of rabies, with the number of rabies deaths falling from 17 in 2014 to 5 in 2015, and to 1 in 2016. What they do is: one is to control the number of dogs, the second is to carry out rabies prevention education in schools.

As part of its activities in 2015 and 2016, Goa State vaccinated and neutered more than 180000 dogs and attended more than 1900 rabies education sessions in more than 1600 schools. More than half a million children were provided with information on rabies, prevention of dog bites and what to do with them after being bitten by dogs.

Dipak Reka, an 8-year-old Indian boy, was bitten by a stray dog while playing near his home in the town of Guillem in 2017. Dipak, who had been taught how to deal with dog bites at school, quickly endured the pain, washing the wound with soap for 15 minutes, and then having his family take him to the hospital immediately to be vaccinated against rabies. The next day, the epidemic department took in the dog that bit Dipak, who tested positive for rabies. General knowledge of rabies prevention enabled him to escape the threat of rabies and save his own life.

6. Build a DNA information base for dogs and apply modern technology to dog management.

Since the chief culprit of rabies is dogs, so long as the management of dogs is strengthened, rabies can be prevented or even eliminated globally.

First of all, strict regulations should be made on dog ownership. Dogs must be vaccinated against rabies in accordance with the regulations.

At present, some countries apply modern science and technology to the management of dogs. In Italy, for example, residents must register their dogs, extract their saliva and create a DNA database for dogs whose owners have failed to manage their dogs, or who have bitten people to escape, according to the city government of Malnet é, Varez province, Italy. We’ll find out which dog it is, who it belongs to, and where we live.

If a dog defecates in a public place, public administrators can carry out DNA tests of the fecal material, which can quickly find the owner of the dog and punish him according to the law.

The city will fine the registered dogs 75 euros (about 600 yuan) if they are found to have been excreted in public places and ignored by their owners, according to the city government.

If a dog escapes after biting a person, the DNA, of the dog can also be extracted from the wound to quickly detect the dog and its owner, so that the dog that bites a person can be quickly monitored and disposed of, and the dog owner can be held responsible accordingly.

The effort was so effective that only 28 of the 2156 dogs registered by the city government of Manateh escaped DNA testing, and the government fined the owners of the 28 dogs a fine of 50 euros per dog.

7. If you keep a fierce dog, you need to buy commercial insurance. If a dog bites a person, it will pursue the criminal responsibility of the.

In view of the fact that some dog owners refuse to bear the liability for compensation after a dog bites a person, some countries stipulate that raising a large dog or a fierce dog must take out commercial insurance, so that the medical expenses and compensation after a dog bites a person will be paid by the insurance company.

The Centers for Disease Control estimated in 2015 that 4.5 million people a year were bitten by dogs in the United States, 77 percent of them by their own and friends’ dogs, and 50 percent of bites by dogs in their homes. Of those bitten by dogs, 885000 required medical treatment and 27000 required reconstructive surgery.

American law requires dogs to buy commercial insurance of at least $100000 (about 700000 yuan) in case the dog bites people to pay for all kinds of medical expenses and compensation.

Of course, if a dog bites a person and causes serious consequences, the dog owner will bear not only civil liability, but also criminal responsibility.

In 2001, a lacrosse coach in San Francisco, Calif., was bitten to death by two dogs of a neighbor who was charged with second-degree murder and sentenced to 15 years to life in prison in 2008. On May 9, 2013, four dogs owned by a family in Little Rock, Calif., killed a 63-year-old retired woman. His owner, Alex Jackson, was also charged with second-degree murder and sentenced to 15 years to life in prison.

In Britain, the original law required dogs to be held criminally responsible for assaulting others in public places. In March 2013, Jane Anderson, a 14-year-old British girl, was killed by four dogs at her friend’s house, prompting a revision of the dangerous Dogs Act in the UK.

Since May 2014, the amended dangerous Dogs Act provides for a five-year prison sentence for dog bites and a 14-year prison term for dog owners who have bitten a person to death, whether in public or private places.

8. The key to the global eradication of rabies is the management of dogs.

The World Health Organization (WHO) and three international agencies jointly formulated a global strategy for the eradication of rabies in 2015, proposing the goal of “zero deaths from human rabies by 2030”.

In fact, most countries in Europe, most countries in the Americas, as well as South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Chile and other countries have not reported cases of rabies for many years. This shows that as long as attention, effective measures, strict law enforcement, the eradication of rabies is just around the corner.

Because the source of infection of rabies is a dog, we must first make an issue from the dog. There is no doubt that there will be no rabies if dogs are banned completely. However, human dogs have a long history, some families regard dogs as their friends, a total ban on dogs is not realistic. But at the very least, dog owners should be held accountable for public safety.

The World Health Organization believes that if 70 per cent of dogs are vaccinated against rabies, human rabies can be eliminated. Visible, so long as the government forces to the dog according to the stipulation to vaccinate the rabies vaccine, may eliminate the rabies.

If it is not possible to vaccinate 100% of the dogs, it is necessary to strengthen the management of the dogs, to take them to public places, and to tie the dogs in chains, and to prevent the dogs from attacking passers-by wearing muzzles.

Owning a dog is an individual liberty, but it must not interfere with the freedom of others, their freedom from fear of activity in public places, or their freedom to live free from harm.

In short, people bitten by dogs vaccinated, this is only the last line of defense against rabies. The elimination of rabies should be focused on the management of dogs. At the same time, there are also sound laws and regulations to protect, dog bite, dog owners in addition to bear civil liability, but also according to the seriousness of the circumstances to bear the corresponding criminal responsibility. Only when dog owners pay a high price for dog bites will they keep dogs as required by law.

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