7 mistakes that are easy to make with antibiotics

In daily life, there are always drugs like “cephalosporin” and “Xilin” in the family medicine cabinet, which people used to call anti-inflammatory drugs. However, many people do not understand the difference between anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and antibacterial drugs, which often leads to errors in use.

Antibiotics are substances produced by microorganisms (including bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, etc.) that inhibit or kill other microorganisms. They are classified into natural antibiotics and artificial semi-synthetic antibiotics, and mainly have therapeutic effects on bacterial infectious diseases. Individual antibiotics have anti-tumor and immunosuppressive effects.

Clinically used antibiotics mainly include β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicols, macrolides, glycopeptides, antifungals, antituberculosis, etc., of which the first six classes of antibiotics Anti-bacterial based. There are two ways to identify different types of antibiotics: first, look at the “indications” column in the drug label or drug label. Anyone who writes a disease for treating a bacterial infection is an antibiotic; the second is to look at the prefix or stem. For example, common cephalosporins, cilostatin, cyclin, and the like.

Antibacterial drugs mainly inhibit and kill bacteria, including some antibiotics. The concepts of the two have differences and overlaps, but they are not inclusive. For example, some synthetic drugs, such as levofloxacin, are not in the category of antibiotics, and antibiotics with anti-tumor effects are not antibacterial drugs. Therefore, antibacterial drugs cannot be equated with antibiotics.

Anti-inflammatory drugs, including “non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs” in medical concepts, such as aspirin, and glucocorticoids. As the name implies, anti-inflammatory drugs can eliminate inflammation, but can not kill pathogenic microorganisms, but directly target inflammation, which is a symptomatic treatment. “Inflammation” is not a specific disease, but a symptom of redness, heat and pain, such as an infectious disease. Therefore, antibiotics are not equal to anti-inflammatory drugs.

However, when an infectious disease occurs, the body will have a similar inflammatory reaction. Many people will choose anti-inflammatory drugs first, but antibiotics should be used to eliminate microorganisms. If the inflammation is not caused by a bacterial infection, such as the onset of gouty arthritis, even if antibiotics are used, there is no anti-inflammatory effect.

Seven points for attention in the use of antibiotics

When using antibiotics and antibacterials in life, there are often 7 errors

Take a headache when you have a fever. Bacteria or viruses can cause colds, and many people are often caused by viral infections. They are self-limiting and do not require the use of antibiotics unless they are combined with bacterial infections. The World Health Organization has repeatedly stressed that “antibiotics cannot cure viral infections such as colds and flu.”

The longer the medication, the better. Many people believe that the longer the antibiotics are used, the better the bacteria can be completely killed. In fact, there is a course of treatment with antibiotics. The treatment courses for different bacterial infections are also different. The use time is too long or too short. Too frequent replacement may have an impact on the prognosis of the disease, and even prone to drug resistance, resulting in no drug available. Patients must strictly follow the doctor’s advice.

The more expensive, newer, and broader the antibiotics, the better. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of antibiotic are different, and there is no complete distinction between “guilds”. When choosing antibiotics, it needs to vary from person to person and from disease to disease. According to the patient’s pathophysiological characteristics, whether there is any drug allergy, infection site, pathogenic bacteria and severity are determined. Need to be reminded that some people are superstitious about high-priced, broad-spectrum, and the latest antibiotics, and think that the effect is better. In fact, the principle of antibiotic use is that unless you can choose a broad spectrum when the pathogen is not clear, you can use a narrow spectrum without a broad spectrum; In addition, the efficacy of some common drugs is relatively stable, the price is relatively cheap, and the adverse reactions are relatively clear.

Change the medicine if the effect is not good. If the efficacy of using an antibiotic is temporarily poor, you should first consider whether the medication is adequate. Even if it works, you should take the necessary period under the guidance of a doctor and do not change the medicine frequently. Because the drug takes effect, it takes a process to change the drug frequently, which in turn causes bacterial resistance and dysbacteriosis.

Oral administration is not as good as intravenous. For patients with general infection, if there is no serious nausea, vomiting and other symptoms, the drug used for oral absorption is good, can also achieve good efficacy. However, patients who are more severely ill or unable to take oral administration due to gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting due to high fever should be administered by injection.

The combination of drugs works well. Taking a variety of drugs at will does not necessarily increase the efficacy, but may increase side effects or adverse reactions, and may also lead to bacterial resistance. For diseases that are indeed bacterial infections, the corresponding drugs should be selected according to the species causing the disease.

The condition improved, and the dosage was reduced or the medication was stopped. As the saying goes, “It is a three-point drug.” Some people think that if the condition improves, it can reduce the dosage or stop the drug, and reduce the damage of the drug to the body. Different pathogenic microorganisms cause infections of different parts and different severity, and the dose and course of treatment with drugs cannot be generalized. For example, it takes only three or four days to treat a simple urinary tract infection, and a complicated urinary tract infection takes ten days. When you are sick, the human body is like a battlefield. When the medicine enters the human body, it will cooperate with the immune cells to enclose and kill the bacteria. The symptoms will be alleviated or even disappeared, but it does not mean that it has already won. If you stop the drug or reduce the dosage at this time, it will be equivalent to stopping or reducing the reinforcements sent to the battlefield, giving the bacteria a chance to counterattack. At this time, most of the bacteria that survived are more viable, and if they recur, they can cause more serious problems. Condition. That is to say, if the condition is improved, the dosage can be reduced or the drug can be stopped. The drug can not reach the effective blood concentration in the body, which may lead to the resurgence of the pathogenic bacteria, and the insufficient dose often leads to the resistance of the bacteria, resulting in the disease. Healing may even turn into a chronic infection or other serious complications.

Antibacterial and antibiotic withdrawal principles: It is generally appropriate to stop after 72 to 96 hours of normal body temperature and symptoms subsided. It is recommended that you follow the doctor’s advice when taking the medicine and avoid stopping the medicine yourself.

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