Recently, the news that a first-grade elementary school boy in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, was killed in heatstroke while attending an off-campus activity has aroused widespread concern. Come and find out the dangers of heat stroke and how to prevent it.
Heatstroke is a common symptom in summer. It is more likely to occur in high temperature and high humidity environment. Lightness may have dizziness, weakness, vomiting, etc. In severe cases, convulsions, heat syncope, heat exhaustion, heat shock, etc. may occur. If it is found or disposed of in time, it may cause serious adverse consequences. Therefore, the heat stroke must not be taken lightly.
Why is heatstroke dead?
The death of a heatstroke is caused by abnormalities in the body due to high temperature, which causes obstacles in the function of the central nervous system, which eventually leads to the death of multiple organs and causes death. The normal body temperature fluctuation range is very narrow, and the cells that make up the human body can survive and exert normal physiological functions only at about 37 degrees. When the high temperature continues for more than 42 degrees, protein denaturation, functional inactivation, and even cell necrosis may occur.
For example, dysfunction or death of nerve cells can cause cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, moderate stroke, leading to disturbance of consciousness or even coma until death; myocardial cells may also have dysfunction or death, leading to heart failure, circulatory function. Failure can not guarantee the blood supply of organ tissues, but also reduce the function of dissipating heat by promoting blood flow, and the heat in the body is more difficult to dissipate. When the disease affects the liver, there will be elevated transaminase, jaundice, and liver failure; involving the kidney, plus decreased blood volume, circulatory failure, acute renal failure may occur; muscles involved, plus muscles at the fixed site caused by disturbance of consciousness Damage to the muscles, muscle necrosis (rhabdomyolysis syndrome), followed by kidney damage and electrolyte imbalance, acidosis and so on.
All of this is due to heat dissipation, which is beyond the scope of human body temperature regulation and will lead to a series of serious consequences. The above-mentioned various organ failures, as well as electrolyte abnormalities, acidosis, etc., interact with each other, and the vicious circle may completely put life at the edge of danger. Therefore, the core principle of heatstroke treatment is rapid cooling.
What should I do with heat stroke?
It is prone to heatstroke in a high-temperature and high-humidity environment, and high-intensity exercise, competition, and labor under these conditions are also prone to heat stroke. Older people, children, and infirm people are prone to heat stroke without high-intensity activities. In some days, some maternity long-sleeved quilts are also easy to heat stroke.
In the event of heatstroke, it should be quickly removed from high temperature, high humidity, and sun exposure. It should be placed in a cool place and in a ventilated place to avoid high-intensity exercise and heavy physical labor. It is necessary to place the patient in an air-conditioned environment and try to remove the clothes to help dissipate heat. . If you are conscious, you should add salty and refreshing drinks in time, such as light salt water, cold watermelon water, mung bean soup, etc. The light ones can be recovered by the above treatment, and the heavy ones need to go to the hospital for treatment.
Heatstroke and high fever should quickly reduce the core body temperature (measuring the rectal temperature or ear temperature), and strive to reduce the core temperature to below 39 degrees in about half an hour, while paying attention to vital signs, changes in consciousness and functional status of various organs, early detection and disposal of concurrent disease. The doctor will take blood to check a variety of physiological indicators, as well as imaging examinations such as head CT, the purpose of which is early detection, early intervention, early suppression of the further development of organ dysfunction. More cooling measures advocate physical cooling measures, such as immersing the body (except the head) in 4 ° C water to cool down, but this cold water will make the conscious person feel very uncomfortable, but also avoid lowering the body temperature; or remove clothing, Sprinkle warm water on the body and use a fan to enhance evaporation and cooling. Currently these two cooling methods work best.
It should be noted that the high fever of heatstroke is not the same as the “fever” of inflammation (that is, the “fever” we usually say), so it is not recommended to use commonly used antipyretic drugs (such as aspirin, acetaminophen, etc.). In addition, alcohol bathing is not recommended.
How to prevent heat stroke?
High temperature heat stroke is important in prevention. Such as improving high temperature, high humidity working conditions, strengthening insulation, ventilation, sunshade and other cooling measures, pay attention to sunshade when going out; drink plenty of salty and refreshing drinks, not add water after thirst; pay attention to diet and rest, insufficient rest Heatstroke is also likely to occur under conditions of fatigue and hunger; cooling with air conditioning, or reducing the body temperature in an air-conditioned environment several times, even if it is left in a short-term air-conditioning environment, it will greatly reduce the occurrence of heat shock, especially for the elderly and children. Infirm, such as the poor adjustment of the body, but the use of air conditioning should also avoid the air conditioning wind blowing or the temperature is too low.