Orchitis: symptoms, causes, treatment, examination, prevention, and diet

What is orchitis?

What is orchitis? Orchitis is a common disease in the male reproductive system and is usually caused by bacterial and viral infections. Because the testes are rich in blood and lymph supply, they are more resistant to bacterial infections. The testis itself rarely develops bacterial infections. Most of the bacterial orchitis is caused by the inflammation of the adjacent epididymis, so it is also called epididymal orchitis. Common pathogens are Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and the like.

The virus can directly invade the testes, most commonly the mumps virus, which mainly invades the parotid glands of children. However, this virus also invades the testes, so viral orchitis often occurs shortly after the onset of mumps.

Orchitis can be divided into two types: acute suppurative orchitis and mumps orchitis, among which acute suppurative orchitis is the most common. There are many causes of orchitis, such as infections, trauma, and tumors.

diseases-and-conditions-of-the-testicles Source: Invitra

The cause of orchitis

What are the causes of orchitis? The causes of orchitis are mainly bacterial infections, parasitic mycoplasma infections and mumps.

  • Bacterial infections. Common pathogens include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus and Proteus. These bacteria, after infection, directly affect the testes after diffusion, causing acute non-specific orchitis. Acute non-specific orchitis often occurs in patients with urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, prostatic hyperplasia, and long-term indwelling catheters.
  • Parasitic mold spirochete infection. The parasite destroys the tissue near the testicle, causing chronic non-specific orchitis, which affects the normal spermatogenic function of the testicle, leading to male infertility. Granulomatous orchitis can occur in patients with testicular trauma. Local or systemic radioisotope phosphorus exposure to testicular testicular inflammation can also occur, destroying testicular tissue. Incomplete treatment of non-specific acute orchitis can also cause chronic orchitis.
  • Mumps. Patients with mumps can easily develop orchitis if they are not treated promptly and effectively, and about 20% of patients with mumps are complicated with orchitis. The occurrence of this disease is more common in the late adolescence, and the chances of adult males are smaller. The testicles are highly enlarged and appear purple-blue.

Symptoms of orchitis

In patients with orchitis, in addition to pain in the affected area, there are some systemic symptoms. The main symptoms of orchitis are as follows:

  • Systemic symptoms: Patients are prone to high fever, chills, and symptoms such as nausea and vomiting.
  • Testicular pain: Pain in the affected area of the testicle, and radiation pain in the scrotum, thigh roots, and groin area.
  • Testicular swelling: Swelling testicular swelling, tenderness, and suppuration may also occur, often accompanied by scrotal skin redness and scrotal hydrocele. If suppuration, the affected area will feel the fluctuation of the pus.
  • Parotid gland enlargement: Viral orchitis occurs in children, and sometimes parotid swelling and pain can be seen.
Orchitis and epididymitis are major diseases that endanger male reproduction.
Orchitis and epididymitis are major diseases that endanger male reproduction.

Test for orchitis

Testicular self-test

During the examination, the patient washes his hands, stands on both feet, relaxes the scrotum, and touches the testicles by hand to see if there is a lump or other abnormality. The normal testes are oval in shape with a smooth surface and medium hardness.

Partial inspection

After the masses in the bilateral scrotum, the benign and malignant lesions can be roughly distinguished. After suspected testicular tumor, it is not suitable for local biopsy of testicular tumor, because it is easy to cause tumor metastasis. The diagnosis of testicular tumor nature depends on the pathological report after surgery.


Can be used for testicular B-ultrasound, can more accurately determine the size, shape and presence of tumors. Patients with cryptorchidism can also use B-ultrasound to understand testicular development and testicular swelling and malignant transformation.

Blood test

Blood tests for chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), if the results exceed the normal value (hCG normal value <5 μg / liter, AFP normal value <25 μg / liter), should be further examined.

X-ray, CT or MRI

If necessary, X-ray, CT or MRI can be performed to understand the post-peritoneal metastasis. It is especially beneficial for patients who have not undergone cryptorchidism and may have malignant changes.

Orchitis treatment

Bacterial orchitis

In patients with acute bacterial orchitis, the scrotum can be lifted up for local hot compresses. The scrotal skin is swollen and can be moistened with 50% magnesium sulfate solution to help the inflammation subside. If the pain is severe, the painkiller is not effective, and the affected side can be closed. Systemic medication should be selected broad-spectrum or antibiotics sensitive to Gram-negative bacteria, such as penicillin, gentamicin and various cephalosporins.

Chronic nonspecific orchitis

Bilateral chronic orchitis is mainly treated for the cause. If the testicle is damaged, the wound should be treated first. If it is caused by mold infection, it should be mainly treated with antibacterial treatment.

Epidemic mumps orchitis

Antibiotics are not effective for this disease, and symptomatic treatment should be the main treatment. Adrenal cortex hormones can be used in patients during recovery. 1% lidocaine low spermatic cord closure can improve testicular blood flow and protect spermatogenic function. In addition to good curative effect on acute mumps orchitis, interferon also has a significant effect on preventing testicular atrophy.

Treatment of testicular pain

Patients with orchitis should be treated symptomatically based on their cause. If you can’t immediately know the cause of inflammation, and the pain in the affected area is unbearable, you can do symptomatic treatment of sedation and pain relief. Closure of prosoprocaine can be used if necessary.

Symptoms and causes of orchitis
Symptoms and causes of orchitis

The risk of orchitis

  • Orchitis is easy to induce serious diseases such as varicocele, sedative, prostatitis, endocrine diseases, nephritis and other kidney diseases, urinary infections, malignant tumors.
  • Orchitis can lead to a decline in male sexual function, and even cause dead sperm, azoosperm, and males lose fertility.
  • At the time of sexual intercourse, men are more likely to transmit inflammatory germs to their spouses, causing the woman to contract gynecological diseases.

Prevention of orchitis

  • Pay attention to testicular maintenance. Usually do a good job of genital cleansing, you can properly massage the testicles. If you find pain during massage, it may be orchitis or epididymitis, you should go to the hospital in time.
  • Pay attention to diet. Men should eat more fresh vegetables and fruits in their daily lives, and increase the intake of vitamin C and other ingredients to improve their anti-inflammatory ability. Maintain a balanced diet, eat less spicy and irritating food, alcohol and tobacco are not good for the body, and try to minimize exposure.
  • Pay attention to sexual hygiene. Frequent sexual life, sexual life disorder, premature sexual life, frequent masturbation, and inattention to cleanliness after the same room are not conducive to reproductive health, should be avoided.

Orchitis diet

The overall diet of patients with orchitis should be light, and should also pay attention to eating more fresh vegetables and fruits, beans, nuts, milk, etc., to help the body increase protein and vitamin C and other ingredients, help cell organization Repair, inflammation subsides, but also can improve the body’s anti-inflammatory ability.

In order to excrete toxins in the body, patients should also pay more attention to vegetables and fruits containing more fiber, such as bananas, sweet potatoes, celery, etc., in order to keep the stool smooth.

Fruit is indispensable for patients with orchitis. Eat more fresh vegetables and fruits, increase the intake of vitamin C and other ingredients to improve the body’s anti-inflammatory ability. It is certainly true that patients with orchitis eat more fruits.

Eat less pig’s trotters, fish soup, mutton, etc., so as not to cause an increase in secretions in the inflammatory area, orchitis further infiltrate and aggravate symptoms.

Improve diet, prevent high-cholesterol foods, eat less red meat with higher cholesterol content, such as pigs, cattle, sheep, etc., eat more chicken, fish, lower cholesterol white meat. Pay attention to the law of daily life and rest, and keep the urine and urine smooth.

Be careful not to eat spicy food, do not smoke or drink, do not stand for a long time, do not over-sex, do not masturbate frequently.

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