25% of patients with mumps have viral orchitis, some of which can cause spermatogenic cell damage in the testis.If a boy develops mumps, parents should take the child to a male to check for orchitis after six months to one year after recovery.
Mumps is a common respiratory infection in children. The symptoms of colds, swollen parotid glands, and localized pain after the incubation period are usually good for a week or two. But for boys, epidemic parotitis may cause greater harm, but this hazard may be “latent” for 20 years to be detected. Male experts pointed out that the mumps virus can invade the body through the blood of various glandular tissues or nervous system and liver, kidney, heart, joints and almost all organs, of which, 25% of patients with mumps will be associated with viral orchitis, of which Some may cause spermatogenic cell damage in the testis, but usually do not affect the secretion of androgens, so it is often necessary to wait until the patient finds infertility after they have grown up and get married. The expert reminds the parents of the boy that if the child develops mumps, he or she should take the child to the male department to check for orchitis in the first half to the first year after recovery, so as to allow early intervention.
25% of mumps patients with orchitis
The male outpatient department of Guangzhou First People’s Hospital recently admitted two patients with infertility. They had mumps at the age of five or six. One of them was infertile after being married for many years. He only found atrophy of bilateral testicles after examination. He was azoospermic. In another patient, there were also feminine features on the outside: beards, sparse hairs, and high-pitched voices.
“In the past, academics believed that viral mumps damages the testes of boys who have entered puberty, and the damage caused by viral orchitis in childhood can be repaired. But now this view has changed because more and more Men affected by childhood mumps suffer from fertility, suggesting that even childhood mumps can not be taken lightly,” said Deng Junhong, chief physician of the First People’s Hospital of Guangzhou City.
Why mumps affects the testes? Mumps virus not only causes mumps, but also can attack the meninges, kidneys, myocardium, pancreas and reproductive system through the blood. Among them, the testis is the most susceptible to mumps virus, the data show that 25% of patients with mumps will be associated with viral orchitis. And in this, another 20% to 30% will cause testicular atrophy, leading to oligozoospermia, if it affects the bilateral testes, it may lead to azoospermia.
The reason why this hazard can be “latent” for a long time is because it often does not affect the secretion of androgens. Deng Junhong introduced that there are three types of cells in the testis: spermatogenic cells, mesenchymal cells, and supporting cells. Spermatogenic cells are more fragile and most vulnerable to damage; interstitial cells are more resistant to ischemia, and the adrenal glands also secrete some androgens, so androgen secretion generally has no effect, and patients may still have normal sexual desire and sexual function. . “Patients often look normal, they can also have normal erection, have sex, or ejaculate. Although there is no sperm in the semen, because the sperm only account for 1% of the semen, they will not find any abnormalities. It is often 20 to 30 years. Later, when they have fertility requirements and they have not been bred for a long time, they will find themselves as azoospermic patients,” said Deng Junhong. If the testicular atrophy is severe enough to affect blood flow, the mesenchymal cells and supporting cells can also be damaged, and there will be feminization of the appearance of one of these patients.
Do not hurt the testicles may also be damaged
According to data from epidemic mumps cases and outbreaks reported by the National Disease Surveillance System from 2008 to 2010, a total of 909,087 cases of mumps have been reported in the country, and men are more likely to have mumps. The sex ratio of male and female reported cases is 1.62:1. . Spring and winter are the seasons of epidemic mumps. The cases are mainly concentrated in children aged 3-14 years (81.8%); epidemic outbreaks of epidemic mumps mainly occur in schools (97.0%), especially in primary schools.
The incubation period of epidemic parotitis is 14 to 25 days. In a few cases, muscle soreness, loss of appetite, burnout, headache, low fever, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis and other symptoms appear first. Parotid gland swelling and pain occur in a day or two. The characteristics are centered on the earlobe. Before, after, and in the next three directions swollen, local pain, mouth and eating when the pain, the skin is not red, not purulent, the highest body temperature will rise to 39 °C ~ 40 °C, usually 1 to 2 weeks just fine. The concurrent orchitis, the symptoms often appear after about a week after the bloated, the patient will have sudden high fever, chills, testicular swelling and pain, a touch of severe pain, severe scrotal skin, significant edema, vaginal luminal fluid in the lumen Most lesions invade one side. The acute symptoms of orchitis will last 3 to 5 days and will last for about 10 days.
It is worth noting that the severity of pain is not a criterion for determining testicular damage. Sometimes mumps does not necessarily cause swelling of the parotid gland, but it can also cause complications such as viral orchitis. Sometimes only one side of the testicle has symptoms, but this does not mean that the other side of the testis is unaffected and there may still be degenerative changes in both testes.
Mumps should heal children with male
The best prevention method is to prevent mumps by timely vaccination. Once mumps is present, it is often treated in infectious diseases, pediatrics and other departments. The parents of male children should pay more attention to the testicular atrophy caused by viral orchitis. Generally, one to two months after the onset, Observed that the mumps is good for the second half to one year should be taken to the male examination, “Early use of drug intervention, such as interferon and drugs to improve local blood flow, the effect of prevention and treatment of testicular atrophy is obvious. However, if there is no early intervention, there are 30% will cause damage to the spermatogenic cells. If both testes are damaging, it is very likely that the spermatozoa will be completely lost.”