Organizers, a group of cells long assumed to help tissue and guide embryonic development, have been shown to exist in human tissues for the first time, according to a new development study published online Wednesday in the journal Nature. The study provides a new model for early embryonic development and establishes a system that promotes a better understanding of how these cells operate.
In 1924, the pioneer of experimental embryology, Hans Spelman, and Hilde Mangold, the “mother of embryology,” joined forces to transfer a small piece of tissue from one salamander embryo to different soft tissues of another salamander embryo. It was found that it induced the host cells to form another embryo, that is, the host’s original soft tissue would gradually develop into the kind of soft tissue that had been transplanted. They call the transplanted area “organizer,” because it can surround host cells and guide them to develop as needed.
“organizer” has always existed in the biological theory hypothesis, is considered to be a kind of cell group that helps the tissue and guides the embryonic development. Until recently, in a new study, scientists tested human stem cells for the first time to prove their presence in humans.
Rockefeller University researcher Ali Bravenlow and colleagues grew human embryonic stem cells in special micropetri dishes and treated them with growth factors that induce them to form organizer-like tissue. The cells were then transplanted into the chicken embryo, which induced peripheral host cells to form elongated nerve tissue, demonstrating its ability to organize. The “organisers” should be highly conservative in the animal kingdom, with little or no change over time, the researchers said.
Oliver Perquay, a scientist, believes the team used human stem cells to obtain tissue that exhibits the “organisational” properties, creating a system that promotes a better understanding of how these cells work.