Infertility:Causes,symptoms,treatment,prevention and research

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Infertility examination and examination project. 

There are many reasons leading to infertility, it is recommended that both husband and wife to the formal hospital to do systematic infertility examination, so as to determine infertility is male factor, female factor or both factors. Women generally do vaginal and uterine tests, while men do semen tests, vasectomy, and so on. 

1. Female infertility examination project. 

Vaginal, cervical, uterine, fallopian tube, ovarian, pelvic, endocrine, immune, systemic, mental and psychological, congenital. Examination, ovulation function test, B-ultrasound examination, sex hormone test, TORCH virus detection. 

2. Examination of male infertility. 

Urethral examination, prostate examination, seminal vesicular vasectomy, epididymis examination, testicular examination, sex hormone examination, sexual function examination, ejaculation function examination, immune factor examination, endocrine examination, varicocele examination, Trauma examination, radiation factor examination, sperm quality test.

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Summary of infertility. 

Infertility is a group of fertility disorders caused by a variety of causes, is a reproductive health adverse event of couples of reproductive age.It is generally believed that women who do not have contraceptive sex for at least 12 months and are not pregnant are referred to as infertility and in men as infertility. Infertility is divided into primary and secondary two categories, has never had a history of pregnancy, no contraception and never pregnancy for the primary infertility, had a history of pregnancy, and then no contraception for 12 months without pregnancy, called secondary infertility. 

The anatomy and function of female oocytes, male sperm and male and female genital tract can lead to infertility or infertility. The incidence of infertility varies with different countries, nationalities and regions. The incidence of infertility in China is about 7- 10%. 

Finding the cause of infertility is the key to the diagnosis of infertility. The common causes of female infertility are pelvic factors and ovulation disorders. The treatment of female infertility mainly includes reproductive tract plastic surgery, ovulation induction and assisted reproductive technology.

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Causes of female infertility. 

1. Pelvic factors: approximately 35% of the causes of infertility, including: 

(1) abnormal fallopian tube, chronic salpingitis caused atresia at the end of the umbrella, or damage of the mucous membrane of the fallopian tube, resulting in complete obstruction of the fallopian tube or stagnant water. 

(2) pelvic adhesions, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease and so on can cause local or extensive loose or dense adhesion, resulting in the destruction of pelvic and oviduct function and structure; 

3 the typical symptoms of endometriosis were pelvic pain and infertility. The disorder of immune mechanism in pelvic and uterine cavity resulted in the effects of ovulation and fallopian tube function, fertilization, luteinogenesis and multiple stages of endometrial acceptance. 

(4) Endometritis, adhesions and polyps were more common in endometrial lesions. 

(5) uterine leiomyoma, including submucous hysteromyoma and intramural myoma, which have a large effect on the shape of uterine cavity, can affect pregnancy. 

(6) the relationship between genital tumor and infertility is uncertain, the persistent anovulation caused by ovarian tumor with endocrine function can affect pregnancy; 

7 reproductive tract malformation, including uterine malformation, congenital fallopian tube dysplasia and so on, may cause infertility and abortion. 

2. Ovulation disorder: 25-35%. The main reasons are: 

1persistent anovulation; 

2polycystic ovary syndrome; 

(3) premature failure of ovary and hypofunction of ovary; 

4congenital gonadal dysplasia; 

(5) hypogonadotropic gonadotropin dysfunction; 

6hyperprolactinemia; 

7luteinized follicle unruptured syndrome. 

It should be noted that the etiology of some ovulation disorders is persistent, while others are dynamic and cannot be defined as the sole, absolute and persistent cause. For couples with menstrual cycle disorder, age ≥ 35 years old, ovarian antral follicle count decreasing, long-term unexplained infertility, the first need to consider the etiology of ovulation disorder.

Causes of male infertility. 

Mainly spermatogenic disorder and insemination disorder. 

1. Abnormal semen: normal sexual function, abnormal semen caused by congenital postnatal reasons, such as azoospermia, weak spermatozoa, oligozoospermia, stagnation of spermatozoa development, abnormal spermatospermia and so on. 

2. Abnormal sexual function: dysplasia of external genitalia or erectile dysfunction, non-ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, etc., so that the sperm can not normally ejaculate into the vagina, can cause male infertility. 

3. Immune factors: under the condition that the immune barrier of male genital tract was destroyed, sperm and seminal plasma produced anti-sperm antibody in vivo, which made the ejaculated sperm agglutinate and could not pass through cervical mucus. 

Unexplained infertility: a factor that both men and women may have infertility at the same time. About 10 to 20 of the causes of infertility are a state of low fertility. The possible causes include immune factors, potential oocytes, egg quality abnormalities, fertilization disorders, recessive fallopian tubes, implantation failures, genetic defects, and so on. However, the diagnosis can not be confirmed by using the current detection methods.

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What are the symptoms of infertility? 

What is the symptom of infertility? Usually infertility early patients do not appear obvious physical discomfort, but from the body can be found out some of the small changes, such as menstrual delay, breast pain or galactorrhea, vaginal secretion increase, obesity and so on. 

1. Abnormal menstruation. 

Infertility in women is initially reflected in menstruation. If find menstruation abnormal, such as menstrual delay or advance, menstrual volume suddenly become more or less, menstrual period with obvious abdominal pain or discomfort, or even amenorrhea, all need to pay close attention. 

2. Breast changes. 

Non-lactating breast appears some milk overflow, or breast swelling and pain, especially during menstruation, swelling and pain is more obvious, breast soft press will appear obvious mass. 

3. Abnormal vaginal secretion. 

Leucorrhea abnormal, such as too many leucorrhea, have peculiar smell, color abnormal, leucorrhea has blood silk, vagina still can appear Sao itch, ache. This is likely to be inflammation of the vagina or appendages. 

4. Abdominal pain and distension. 

Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease patients are often abdominal lumbosacral pain continuous once fatigue sexual life or menstruation on the symptoms aggravated affecting work rest and husband and wife sexual life. Patients may even develop mental symptoms because of prolonged torture. 

5. Obesity. 

Obesity can change the metabolic pathway of estrogen, so the female hormone production is not like the ovarian secretion of estrogen with periodic activity, also can not induce ovulation, menstruation may be rare, dripping or more.

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Treatment of infertility. 

Infertility occurs when the couple has a normal sexual life and has not taken any contraception and cohabited for more than a year and is unable to conceive. How to treat infertility? Combination of their own physical conditions, timely conditioning, for infertility treatment, has a very important impact. 

1. Adjust your mood and relax your mood. Liver, both hide blood, but also the main catharsis. Liver happy, so in life, to maintain a happy mood. If is caused by stagnation of liver-qi infertility, need to regulate good mood, relax mood, this also needs the cooperation of family, family relations can also improve the probability of conception. 

Men also cause infertility due to stagnation of liver-qi. Now work pressure is big, add a few male personality to want to be strong, have drink to smoke wait for bad habit, can cause sperm abnormality, sperm deformity, sperm quantity is small, cause sterility accordingly. 

2. Control weight and exercise properly. Once a woman is obese, it can lead to less menstrual activity, fatigue and increased leucorrhea. Phlegm dampness Yang stagnation obese women, most of the appetite, small amount of exercise, good absorption. For women with phlegm dampness and yang stagnation, they can take Siwu decoction and Cangfu guidance phlegm decoction, which have the effect of invigorating spleen and regulating qi, dissipating phlegm and removing dampness, and tonifying the kidney and helping yang. At the same time, obese women should also exercise, adhere to exercise, reasonable control of diet. 

Male obesity also easily lead to phlegm dampness, excessive obesity of men prone to less sperm, or even azoospermia. In daily life, male sterile patient if find oneself to gain weight gradually, body is weak, sexual desire drops, lethargy, like to eat fat and greasy food and so on circumstance, want to check in time, see is phlegm dampness is caused by abundant.

Female infertility care.

In addition to early and active treatment, women infertile patients should also pay attention to practical protection in their daily life so as to receive better therapeutic effect.

1. Be comfortable in your mind, not overly anxious and anxious, keep a happy mood and cultivate a wide range of interests. In particular, people who are older or have been married for several years are more nervous, which interferes with neuroendocrine function.

2. Pay attention to self-protection and reduce the occurrence of infertility. Avoid exposure to radiation and harmful substances, such as certain chemicals and heavy metals, to avoid high temperatures. Infertile patients should avoid smoking and drinking.

3. Increase nutrition and exercise. Eating some animal internal organs such as liver and brain for synthesis of sex hormones, nutrition and vitamins is also required, should be eating foods that are rich in protein, vitamins, such as lean meat, eggs, fresh vegetables, fruits, etc.

4. It is usually appropriate to avoid excessive frequency. Abstinence is good for seeds, and it is very important to prevent infertility. It is appropriate to be in the same room during ovulation to increase the chances of conceiving.

Male infertility care.

Male infertility patients, in addition to early detection of specific causes, targeted treatment, in daily life should also pay attention to the following points, in order to receive better efficacy.

1. Be comfortable in your mind. Don’t be too anxious or worried about infertility. Be patient and stick to treatment. Treatment of infertility often takes 3 months as 1 course of treatment, frequent change of medicine is adverse to treatment.

2. Avoid adverse environmental factors. Environmental factors can affect testicular sperm production functions, such as heavy metals, chemical products and exposed to radiation and high temperature operation, sensitive person born soon can make sperm cells damage, and make the sperm cannot be generated.

3. Smoking and alcohol should be avoided for patients with infertility. Heavy smoking inhibits sperm motility, and the number of malformed sperm in smokers is significantly higher than non-smokers. Long-term excessive drinking, can affect androgen synthesis, not conducive to sperm development.

4. Maintain a lower temperature in the scrotum. The temperature of the scrotum 2-3 ℃ lower than the body temperature, keep rising temperature of the scrotum. Long sitting, long distance driving and wearing tight pants make the cooling of the scrotal area affected, and local temperature rise.

5. Cholesterol is an important raw material for synthetic sex hormones, and it is beneficial to eat more liver, brain, intestine and stomach and other animal organs to facilitate the synthesis of sex hormones. Vitamins A, B, C and E are all essential nutrients for the production of sperm and should be taken as appropriate.

6. Adjust the frequency of the room properly. Do not deliberately refrain from sexual demands, and put your hopes on the first day of ovulation. Sex one time the next day, which increases the chance that the sperm and egg will combine.

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